Valcke, Thema 3
Visies op leren en instructie: een ontologische en epistemologische discussie.
Bijna niet te doen voor een eenvoudige weg- en waterbouwkundige!!!!
Schema aan het begin van het hoofdstuk
is the philosophical study of the nature of being, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.
Concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge.It addresses mainly the following questions:
1. What is knowledge?
2 .How is knowledge acquired?
3. To what extent is it possible for a given subject or entity to be known?
Objectivism’s central tenets are that reality exists independent of consciousness, that human beings have direct contact with reality through sense perception, that one can attain objective knowledge from perception through the process of concept formation and inductive logic, that the proper moral purpose of one’s life is the pursuit of one’s own happiness (or rational self-interest), that the only social system consistent with this morality is full respect for individual rights embodied in laissez-faire capitalism, and that the role of art in human life is to transform humans’ metaphysical ideas by selective reproduction of reality into a physical form—a work of art—that one can comprehend and to which one can respond emotionally.
Empiricism is a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience. One of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism, idealism, and historicism, empiricism emphasizes the role of experience and evidence, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, over the notion of innate ideas or traditions; empiricists may argue however that traditions (or customs) arise due to relations of previous sense experiences.
Op blz 80 en 81 een uitstekende samenvatting van de effecten van objectivisme en empirisme op onderwijs.
Of ik het wil weten of niet, als docent ben ik toch vaak objectivistisch bezig. 🙂